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​Fangshan County

Time:2022-06-01 10:39:15

Source:Eshanxi-English

Ancient City Ruins of Nan Village


The Ancient City Ruins of Nan Village are located in Nan Village, Yukou Town, Fangshan County. They are about 3,500 meters long from north to south, and 2,500 meters wide from east to west, covering an area of about 9 million square meters. As recorded in History of Wei of the Northern Dynasties, Tong Dian (collection of political documents), and the Chronicles of Fenzhou Prefecture published under the reign of Emperor Guangxu in Qing Dynasty, this ancient city was first built in the Warring States Period and called "Gaolang City". During the Qin and Han dynasties, Gaolang County was set up. During the Eastern Han Dynasty, South Capital of the Xiongnu was set up here, from which time it was called "Zuoguo City". During the Sixteen Kingdoms Period, Liu Yuan raised an army to rebel against the ruling of Jin Dynasty and established a capital here. The city ruins are high in the east and low in the west, and the plane is in an irregular shape due to the terrain. It consists of two parts that are left from different historical periods. The first part is the ruins of Gaolang City from the Warring States Period, of which the plane is in a trapezoidal shape, with an east-west length of about 504-600 meters, a north-south width of about 127 meters, a base width of about 13.7 meters, a top width of about 6 meters, and a residual height of 1.5-7.2 meters. Its rammed wall comprises 0.09-0.10 meters thick rammed layers. The location of the city gate is unknown. The second part is the ruins of Gaolang County from the Han Dynasty and the ruins of Zuoguo City from the Western Jin Dynasty. This part is divided into inner, outer and east cities. The inner city was derived from Gaolang City of the Warring States Period, and the outer city was built on a trumpet-shaped plane, with an east-west length of 594-720 meters, and a north-south width of 206-570 meters, and the rammed layer thickness is 0.04-0.12 meters. There are repair marks on the upper part of the city wall, where the maximum thickness of the rammed layer is about 0.16 meters. There is a protruding rampart outside the south wall, and a breach in the south of the east wall, which should be the city gate. The east city is actually a combination of several defensive walls built outside the outer city, and there are one city wall and two protruding ramparts to the north of its north wall. Its east wall is parallel to two city walls in the east, and three arc-shaped baffle walls are located to the north of the outermost wall. In the ruins, there are fragments of Li pots, urns, jars, semicircle-shaped tiles, pan-roofing tilesand copper arrowheads, which were left from the Warring States Period; pottery pots, jars, basins, and remnants of semicircle-shaped tiles and pan-roofing tiles with rope figure on the exterior and woven design on the interior, which are left from the Han and Jin dynasties. The ruins wereselected into the sixth batch of national key cultural relic protection units by the State Council in 2006.



Former Site of He Long Middle School

The former site of He Long Middle School is located in Dawu No. 2Village, Dawu Town, Fangshan County. Facing the east, the former site is 44.75 meters long from south to north, and 27.3 meters wide from east to west, covering an area of 1,222 square meters. In September 1945, a middle school affiliated to Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia-Shanxi-Suiyuan Joint Defense Force in Shanxi Province was established in Wenshui County, with He Long serving as the principal. In October of the same year, the school was relocated to Dawu Village and was renamed He Long Middle School on January 1, 1946. From the summer of 1946 to the autumn of 1947, the second and third school sections were set up in Jingle County and Shuo County successively. In 1948, the school was expanded into Northwest Military and Political University and moved southwards to Linfen. He Long Middle School was housed in Fusheng Nunnery in the north of the village. It is unknown when this nunnery was established. According to the former site's tablet inscriptions, it was repaired in the ninth year (1744) under the reign of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty, and the existing main structure is the remains of Qing Dynasty. The school building features a one-courtyard layout. The Yuelou pavilion and the main hall are distributed in order from east to west on the central axis, while on the north and south sides are the side halls and two portals. The Yuelou pavilion is a two-storey building of masonry-timber structure. The first storey is a brick-built north-south archway, and the second storey is three bays wide and four rafters deep, with a single-eave overhanging gable roof and five protruding purlins supporting the eaves of front colonnade. There are 9 stone tablets from Qing Dynasty in the courtyard, among which there is a masterpiece of calligraphy by Wang Jixian, the governor of ancient Yongning Prefecture. Some student notes and pictures are preserved here. The former site of He Long Middle School was selected into the third batch of provincial-level cultural relic protection units by the People's Government of Shanxi Province in 1996.



Dawu Drum Tower


Dawu Drum Tower, also known as Guanyin Tower, is located in Dawu No. 2Village, Dawu Town, Fangshan County. It is a south-facing building, covering an area of 110 square meters. According to the records of the stele (already lost) from the twenty sixth year (1547) under the reign of Emperor Jiajing in Ming Dynasty, the tower was first built in the fourth year (1453) under the reign of Emperor Jingtai in Ming Dynasty, and repaired from 1986 to 1989. The existing main structure is the remains of Ming Dynasty. This wooden arcade is 18.5 meters high, with two storeys, three eaves, a cross hipped roof, and black glazed tiles as the roof edge trims. The first storey is square in the plane and built on a 1.2-meter-high brick plinth, which is three bays wide and open for passage in four directions, where four highest pillars reach the top storey, featuring a caisson ceiling with eight diagrams, column bases in an inverted-pot shape, and column heads being arc-shaped on both sides. The second storey is three bays wide and deep, where the upper and lower bucket arches are separated by an overhanging eave, both in the same style, and an oblique arch protrudes on each corner. The triple-eave bucket arch is composed of five transverse arches, one bow member, and one diagonal member. There are 6 painted sculptures in the building. The building was selected into the second batch of provincial-level cultural relic protection units by the People's Government of Shanxi Province in 1986. In October 2019, it was selected into the eighth batch of national key cultural relic protection units by the State Council.


Ancient City Ruins of Fangshan Village

The ruins are located in Fangshan Village, Jicui Township, Fangshan County. Facing the southeast, the ruinsare about 530 meters long from east to west, 500 meters wide from north to south, covering an area of about 260,000 square meters. According to the General Annals of Shanxi published under the reign of Emperor Guangxu in Qing Dynasty, the city was intermittently under the jurisdiction of Fangshan County from A.D. 1213 to A.D. 1264, and under the jurisdiction of Fangshan Fort Patrol Division during Ming and Qing dynasties, and returned to the jurisdiction of Fangshan County during the Republic of China period. The remaining part of the city wall on peripheral edges of the city ruins in the west, south and north is 1026 meters long, 4.3-7.8 meters high, 7.6-7.8 meters wide at the bottom and 4.2-4.7 meters wide at the top. There are four existing observation towers built at intervals inside the wall and integrated with the wall, all of which are made of rammed earth, with a rammed layer thickness of about 0.05 to 0.09 meters. There is a city gate on the southwestern edge of the city ruins. The city ruins wereselected into the first batch of municipal-level cultural relic protection units by the People's Government of Lvliang City in 2006.


Zhangjiata Ancient Folk Houses

Zhangjiata Ancient Folk Houses are located in Zhangjiata Village, Yukou Town, Fangshan County. The existing buildings mainly include 3 city gate bases, ancestral halls and more than 20 houses. Most of the houses are built leaning the mountains, covering an area of about 20,000 square meters. According to the Studies on Zhangjiata Ancient Folk Houses (the 10thcollection of Fangshan's historical accounts) and the inscriptions on the houses' gate top, the earliest house was built in the early Qing Dynasty, and expanded or repaired in the subsequent more than 200 years, a process that finished at the beginning of the Republic of China period. The existing buildings are the remains of Qing Dynasty. There are tunnels under each courtyard, and inscriptions on the gates. Most of the houses are in the layout of quadrangle courtyard. The stable and the main cave dwelling are distributed in order from south to north, while the side cave dwellings are on the east and west sides. Most of the houses are basically complete, and highly valuable for historical and artistic research. The Ancient Folk Houses were selected into the first batch of municipal-level cultural relic protection units by the People's Government of Lvliang City in 2006, and was announced as a provincial-level historic and cultural village by the People's Government of Shanxi Province in 2009. In 2016, it was selected as a traditional Chinese village.


Zhenwu Taoist Temple of Wudang Village


Zhenwu Taoist Temple of Wudang Village is located in Wudang Village, Beiwudang Town, Fangshan County. Facing the southwest, the temple covers an area of 608 square meters. According to the records of the steles and stone tablets in the temple, the temple was first built in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and was repaired many times in Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). The existing main structure is the remains of Qing Dynasty. It was originally in a two-courtyard layout, but the first courtyard was destroyed. The second gate and the main hall are distributed in order from west to east on the central axis of the second courtyard, while meditation rooms are arranged on the north and south sides respectively. The main hall is a two-storey building of masonry-timber structure. The first storey is an abstinence hall, where 7 brick-built cave dwellings are embedded, with overhanging eaves and bucket arches carved from bricks installed above the gates. The second storey is nine bays wide, and six rafters deep, with a single-eave gable roof and seven protruding purlins supporting the eaves of front colonnade, where the bucket arches on the columns and architraves are all composed of one bracket set and two blocks with cross mortises, the center bay and two smaller side bays are provided with four lattice doors, and two side bays and four outermost bays are all provided with windows. The area of existing murals in the hall is 50 square meters. The temple now houses 10 steles and 1 stone tablet from Qing Dynasty. The Zhenwu Taoist Temple of Wudang Village was selected into the first batch of municipal-level cultural relic protection units by the People's Government of Lvliang City in 2006.


Former Residence of Yu Chenglong

The Former Residence of Yu Chenglong is located in Laibao Village, Beiwudang Town, Fangshan County, 25 kilometers away from Fangshan County and 30 kilometers away from Lvliang City. The former residence was built at the beginning of Qing Dynasty, with three courtyards being preserved until now, including the former residences of Yu Chenglong, his fatherand his older brother, covering a total area of about 2600 square meters. Under the care of provincial and municipal leaders, from September 2014 to April 2016, the Publicity Department of the Provincial Party Committee, Shanxi Culture Relics Bureau and People's Government of Fangshan County carried out planning and design, residents' relocation, protection and repair, and exhibition and displayof the Former Residence of Yu Chenglong. After the renovation, the three courtyards are all in the layout of quadrangle courtyards, with houses of masonry-timber structure. In the former residence of Yu Chenglong's father, there is a main cave dwelling in the north, in front of which three cave dwellings in the east are provided with door eaves. Besides, there are cave dwellings in the west, a stable and a feed room in the south, and a gatehouse in the middle. The three courtyards comprise 15 houses, 22 cave dwellings, 3 gatehouses, and 2 screen walls in total. The former residence is mainly used to display the household items once used by the two generations of Yu's family. Meanwhile, restore the scenes of life at that time with the help of wax statues, bronze statues, and animal specimen. In October 2019, the Former Residence of Yu Chenglong was selected into the eighth batch of national key cultural relic protection units by the State Council.


Yu Chenglong's Tomb

Yu Chenglong's Tomb, located in the south of Hengquan Village, Yukou Town, Fangshan County, was built in the early Qing Dynasty, facing the west and with its terrain high in the east and low in the west. Yu Chenglong's Tomb was excavated in 1946, so the original mound does not exist. Several stone tablets, stone statues and plaques were unearthed. In September 2014, under the great care of provincial and municipal leaders, Yu Chenglong's Tomb was restored. The restored tomb covers an area of about 7 mu. The gate tower, stone archway, tomb passage, and mound are distributed in order from west to east on the central axis of the tomb, while stone statues, exhibition room, and management room are arranged on the two sides. The stone archway is made of Caobaiyu (white limestone with black markings), with four pillars and three bays, on the door top of which a plaque is inscribed with four characters written by Emperor Kangxi to commend the tomb owner's moral conducts and integrity. The stone-built pedestal of the mound is provided with stone railings, 5 meters high and 9 meters in diameter. The exhibition room is mainly used to display the calendar of events throughout Yu Chenglong's life as an official governing for the people, unearthed cultural relics, books, video materials, and the comments from the later emperors and generations. Yu Chenglong's Tomb was selected into the fifth batch of provincial-level cultural relic protection units by the People's Government of Shanxi Province in 2016.


The Former Site of the Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lidong County

The Former Site of the Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lidong County is located in Xinmin Village, Beiwudang Town, Fangshan County, where 15 loess cave dwellings and 12 brick cave dwellings still exist, covering an area of 6,000 square meters. After the "Western Shanxi Incident", the Japanese army occupied Lishi, Fangshan, and Lanxian counties, built bunkers along the Lishi-Lanxian Highway, and setup more than ten strongholds. Meanwhile, the puppet governments at the levels of county, district, and village and a considerable number of puppet troops were established, controlling the main traffic route from Lishi County to Lanxian County. They implemented the policy of nibbling territory and repeatedly carried out brutal sweeps over the base areas. In September 1940, to better lead the anti-Japanese struggle in the eastern area of Lishi, the CPC Western Shanxi Party Committee and the Administrative Office of the Second Guerrilla Area of Shanxi Province decided to establish Lidong County and the Lidong CPC Working Committee, and reorganize the former Lishi-Dongshan Office to Government Office of Lidong County. In November 1941, according to the instructions of the CPC Central Committee on the construction of the political power in Shanxi and Suiyuan provinces and the practical needs of the struggle against enemy in Lidong County, the fourth prefecture-level CPC committee and the fourth commissioner's office of western Shanxi Province reorganized the Lidong CPC Working Committee into the CPC Committee of Lidong County, and the Government Office of Lidong County into the Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lidong County. The County's CPC Working Committee, CPC Committee, Government Office, and Government had been successively subordinated to the leadership of the fourth prefecture-level CPC committee and the fourth commissioner's office of western Shanxi Province, the eighth prefecture-level CPC committee and the eighth commissioner's office of Shanxi and Suiyuan provinces, and the third prefecture-level CPC committee and the third commissioner's office of Shanxi and Suiyuan provinces. The Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lidong County is a county-level political power, with six departments of civil affairs, justice, construction, finance, food, and education, and three bureaus of public security, transportation, and trade. The southeast area of Yukou and Yaerya (now Xinmin Village of Beiwudang Town) in Fangshan County was put under the jurisdiction of Lidong County, becoming the third district of Lidong County.


In November 1942, Fangshan County was revoked. The region in the east of Beichuan River and in the south of Madihui and Gedong was put under the jurisdiction of Lidong County, of which the government was located in Yaerya (now Xinmin Village). The CPC Committee of Lidong County reorganized the three guerrillas operating in the Lidong area into the Fifth Guerrilla of Lidong County. It had successively launched dozens of massive battles with the enemy in the areas along the Lidong-Lanxian Highway, Yaerya, Wucheng, Xiaoshentou, and Liulin Town, blew up dozens of bunkers controlled by Japanese puppet regime, and seized a large number of weapons and ammunition. From the autumn of 1944 to the spring of 1945, the Lidong guerrillas and the armed working teams cooperated with the third and eighth divisions of Shanxi-Suiyuan military region and launched a fierce attack on the enemy strongholds stationed in Yukou, Hengquan, Gedong, Hubao, Mafang and Kaifu, killed the pseudo-magistrate of Fangshan County. The army led by Japanese puppet regime fled for their lives in panic, and Fangshan County was liberated. In February 1945, the administrative level of Fangshan as a county was restored, and the two districts previously put under the jurisdiction of Lidong County was returned to the jurisdiction of Fangshan County. On August 15, 1945, the Japanese government announced its unconditional surrender. In September of the same year, Lishi and Lidong counties were liberated. The Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lidong County was stationed in Lishicheng District, and the Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lishi County was relocated to Liulin Town. On January 31, 1946, Lishi and Lidong counties merged into Lishi County.

Although the Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lidong County only existed for a short period of time, it, led byCPC and the People's Armyand supportedby the people, made great historical contributions to the victory of the Anti-Japanese War. Anti-Japanese War Daily and Liberation Daily had reported the stories of Lidong County in the Anti-Japanese War for many times. Yaerya (now Xinmin Village), the seat of the Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lidong County, was once an important passage connecting Yanan, where the CPC Central Committee was located, and North China. Liu Shaoqi, Peng Dehuai, Xu Xiangqian, Chen Yi, Liu Bocheng, Yang Shangkun, Bo Yibo, Luo Ruiqing, Chen Geng, Chen Xilian, Cai Shufan, Hua Guofeng and other proletarian revolutionists of the older generation once galloped on horseback from here to Yanan, and directed the Anti-Japanese War, leaving a string of shining footprints. This place has been praised as the "red corridor leading to Yanan". The Former Site of the Anti-Japanese Democratic Government of Lidong County was announced by the county government as a county-level cultural relic protection unit in 2016.



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